Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the hydrogen and oxygen are usually present in approximately the 2:1 ratio found in water. The simplest of the carbohydrates are the monosaccharides, which contain between three and six or more carbon atoms.
Simple sugars are transformed into alcohol and carbon dioxide by zymase, an enzyme naturally present in yeast cells. Because of this easy absorption, these sugars are the first ones used in the fermentation process. Based on the experiment production of bubbles and production of alcoholic smell were observed due to the process of fermentation which causes the production of Carbon dioxide and ethanol.
A common humectant in food products is sugar. A humectant is a hygroscopic substance, which means that they are able to absorb ambient water. It is often a molecule with several hydrophilic groups, most often hydroxyl groups, but amines and carboxyl groups, sometimes esterified, can be encountered as well. Sugar can act as a humectant by retaining the moisture in food products. The humectant property of sugar was proven in the experiment wherein the moisture content of the sample which is soaked in 50°Brix is relatively higher compared to the moisture content of the sample which is not soaked in sugar solution.
Caramelization is the oxidation of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color. Caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning reaction because it does not need enzymes. Based on the experiment application of heat caused the sugar crystals to transform from white crystals to brown solids. Application of heat also causes the release of volatile components causing the caramel smell.
Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkages. They are therefore very large, often branched, molecules. They tend to be amorphous, insoluble in water, and have no sweet taste.
Starch, a polymer of glucose, is an alpha-glucan, predominantly containing alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages with a relatively small amount of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages forming branch points. Two major polymeric components are present: amylose and amylopectin. The difference between the two is the arrangement of the molecules. Amylose is essentially linear while amylopectin has many branches like a tree. Based on the experiment amylose and amylopectin are important components of starch that affects textural properties of food and gelatinization properties of different starches.
Starch occurs in small particles known as granules. The granule size and shape are characteristic of each type of plant, so that an experienced person, by microscopic examination, can usually determine the source of the starch. Based on the experiment potato starch has the biggest granules and rice starch has the smallest granules. When it comes to shape potato starch was obserbed to have an oyster like shape. While mung bean starch, cassava starch and sweet potato starch was observed to have a spherical or oval shape. Corn starch has a polygonal shape and rice starch has an angular shape.
It is recommended that different starches and carbohydrates must be used to check their physical and chemical properties. It is recommended to study polysaccharide specifically starches due to their special physical and chemical characteristics.